Writers’ Tools: Scene-by-Scene


As NaNoWriMo drains words from me like a gigantic novel leech, I have to take that tried-and-tested piece of November advice and silence my inner editor. The emphasis of Nano has always been word count above all else, with the idea that we can fix all in the edit – in a similar way that film-makers “fix it in post”.

If you’re an intricate plotter, you probably start any new project, novel or screenplay or other, with a thick wedge of notes and an exact play-by-play of how your finished project is going to look.

If, however, you’re like me, you probably start with broad brushstrokes and then fill in the finer details as you go on. You may have a beginning, a middle and an end but how exactly those are going to fit together may be a complete mystery.

I hold an interesting position in that I am both a screenwriter and a novelist. Screenwriting tends to be much more heavy-handed when it comes to structure, particularly meeting the expectations of directors, producers and others with whom you will share a script during development. Novels are a lot more free-form, though thriller-type crime novels tend towards the pacey end of the novelling spectrum. Your audience wants to know what happens next and you have to keep their attention.

In an attempt to form a bridge between the waffley first draft of a novel and a thrilling page-turner, I like to utilise a technique I learned when I first started scriptwriting. I call it the scene-by-scene breakdown.

What is a scene-by-scene?
For me, a scene-by-scene is part of my first pass edit. It involves me looking at every chapter of my novel and addressing each scene by checking its relevance to the work as a whole.

Before I go into exactly how I do this, let me tell you a little bit about how I came to it in the first place.

Scene-by-scene – the origins
I owe my discovery of this breath-takingly simple technique to Blake Snyder’s Save the Cat. Mr Snyder was a bit of a stickler for screenplay structure and he permitted writers only 40 index cards for a feature-length film, each representing a scene or sequence.

Only 40! Like most screenwriters, I live and die by my index cards and the idea of culling them like this makes me want to cuddle them to my chest. However, he makes a very good point about what each card must contain and its this that I use as the basis for my scene-by-scene.

A screenplay card might look like this:

Erin confronts Dee about her relationship with Saul, but Dee denies it.
+/- Erin is angry with Dee but pacified by her response; Dee is defensive, but feels uneasy that she’s not telling Erin the whole truth.
>< Erin wants reassurance that Dee values her opinion; Dee wants to live her own life.

The symbols that Blake suggests represent:
+/- emotional change within a scene
>< conflict

Conflict is the bread-and-butter of screenwriters. Without conflict, there is no drama and your characters just pootle along in their vacuous lives without being changed or challenged. That does not an interesting film make.

While novels are less rigid, you still need to keep the reader's interest. If your scenes are heavy on exposition or emotional outpourings, your audience may wander off and find something else to do. If you want a reader to turn pages, you need to give her a reason to do so.

How I write a scene-by-scene
I started writing scene-by-scene breakdowns when I was editing Binary Witness, the first Amy Lane novel. The below examples are from the edit of the second book, Code Runner.

Because novels are quite a bit longer than screenplays, I tend to write my scene-by-scenes in Evernote or Word, not on index cards. I also use a slightly different format to Blake Snyder and add some extras to help with my edit:

Chapter 7: The Devil’s in the Details
Amy finds the murder victims on Facebook and Jason wants to go downtown (BRYN: Amy v Mystery; Jason v Amy; Jason v Bryn); Jason cleans the oven and leaves Amy alone (AMY: Amy v Jason) [too long?]

Breaking the note into its composite parts, we see:
– Chapter # and title
– Brief summary of scene events
– POV character – name in all caps
– Conflicts, including emotional
– Edit notes [in square brackets]

If there’s more than one scene in a chapter, they are separated by a semi-colon.
By adding the POV character, I can also check the balance of POVs in the novel. When I wrote Binary Witness, Jason had almost double the number of POV scenes than Amy did and they are supposed to be co-protagonists! I recently completed a scene-by-scene for Amy Lane #3 and you’ll see that the POVs came out a lot more balanced between the protagonists, with Bryn always a lesser third.

It’s perfectly placed at the beginning of an edit, because it can serve as a reminder that a plot was dropped in the first third and never picked up, or a question was posed in Chapter 5 but the characters only remembered it in Chapter 19. It’s also useful to see all my terrible chapter titles in one place so I can flag up the ones which desperately need a rethink.

I’ve found this technique particularly useful for highlighting my personal weaknesses. For example, I have a tendency to write a lot of emotional scenes that don’t really go anywhere – especially for Amy, a character who lends herself to wallowing in angst. It also picks up if a supporting character has disappeared for a stretch of scenes or we’ve been too long without slipping into the Killer POV or catching up on the police investigation.

How do you kick off your edit process? Do you think a scene-by-scene could be useful in shaping your novel? Let me know in the comments!

Freudian Script: Emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD)

Emotionally unstable personality disorder: balance, understanding and acceptance

This week’s Freudian Script concentrates on a mental health problem that is not often in the public eye. As opposed to correcting stereotypes about this condition, I will instead look at what emotionally unstable personality is, common stigma problems, portrayals in fiction, and how writers can consider the condition in their work.

WARNING: This post contains discussion of self-harm, suicide and abuse.

DISCLAIMER: Freudian Script discusses mental health problems for writers of fiction, to encourage accurate and sensitive portrayals. If you or someone you know is experiencing mental health problems, please seek help from a doctor.

What is emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD)?
Perhaps a better starting question is: what is a personality disorder?.

A personality disorder is when an adult has a set of personality traits that cause problems for them in their lives. These have likely developed from difficult early life experiences and were at one time useful to help survive those situations. However, as the person grows older, these are no longer helpful to them and instead create problems in work, relationships and coping with stress.

Current feeling among mental health professionals is that personality disorder is not a very helpful term. Nonetheless, I will use it here for clarity and to fit in with the classification systems we work by. I have previously mentioned a different personality disorder when discussing The Psychopath – that being antisocial or dissocial personality disorder.

Emotionally unstable personality disorder relates to a set of personality traits that are rooted in problems with emotional regulation. The person may feel their emotions are out of control or they have very rapid mood swings. For this reason, EUPD is sometimes mistaken for bipolar affective disorder, though the two can also co-exist.

There are two main types of EUPD:

> Impulsive type – The emotional instability predominates here with a lack of impulse control, so thoughts can be acted upon suddenly with later regret.

> Borderline type – Called “borderline” due its historic position between the “psychotic” and “neurotic” disorders, this type sees more disturbances in self-image with frequent self-loathing. This can be accompanied by chronic feelings of emptiness, intense but brief interpersonal relationships, and self-destructive behaviour, from self-harm to suicide attempts.

Why do people get EUPD?
There is a movement in psychiatry to re-brand EUPD as a “complex trauma disorder”. This is because this group has a very high incidence of childhood abuse, trauma and neglect.

If a young child doesn’t feel safe and nurtured, their ability to form secure attachments to others doesn’t develop as it should. Instead, they learn to protect themselves by withdrawing – but also continue to look for an attachment that is fulfilling, because relationships are an important part of human sustenance.

This constant push-pull on those close to them puts a strain on the relationship and they frequently break down. This reinforces the person’s beliefs about themselves as unlovable and they experience an increase in negative emotions, which they find difficult to regulate. This can then lead to increased self-harm, either directly from cutting or related behaviour or through other “punishment”, such as self-starvation.

Self-harm and EUPD
There is a lot of stigma, both outside and inside the medical community, of self-harm and personality disorder. Common ideas that I have heard expressed are that people with EUPD are “attention-seeking” or that their self-harm should not be taken seriously.

Let’s deal with these two thoughts:

“Attention-seeking” implies a conscious desire to act merely to gain attention. It is likened to a toddler throwing a tantrum. Instead, it can be viewed in the context of the difficult in emotional regulation. With secure support and appropriate role models, children learn to self-soothe their emotional distress. Most upsets may provoke an emotional reaction but it can be dealt with by the person with only minimal support from outside.

However, without that ability, any emotional upset can become a calamity. One of the most frequent is the break-up of a relationship. If you have a large amount of negative emotion, how do you deal with it? Self-harm can be used by people to relieve tension, to form part of that coping mechanism. It also attracts attention of people who can care for the person – however, if that is operating in the situation, it is on the unconscious level.

Secondly, self-harm should always be taken seriously. It is the strongest predictor of future suicide attempts, even without the immediate risks. Talking therapy to enable that person to understand the reasons behind their self-harm and explore alternate coping mechanisms, without adding to the guilt and shame that often accompanies being “found out”, can be a helpful stage in moving on.

Management for EUPD
Like many mental health problems, there is no “quick fix” for EUPD. Some people develop alternative coping strategies spontaneously, usually supported by developing appropriate relationships and proving their worth to themselves, and appear to “grow out of” their personality disorder.

However, the more severe end of the spectrum requires more support. Specific talking therapies form the main basis for assistance from mental health services, though some medications may be useful in blunting anxiety or helping mood stability.

I have previously talked about psychodynamic psychotherapy, which looks at how childhood experiences influences adult behaviour and interaction. This can help understanding of present difficulties and aid in coming to terms with previous distressing experiences as a child.

One type of therapy that was specifically developed for EUPD is dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT). It is particularly for people who use self-destructive behaviour as a coping mechanism and attempts to address both harmful behaviour and the underlying emotional difficulties. It takes place over a year, with both individual and group sessions, and has two distinct phases. The first phase is about safety and reducing the self-harm behaviours, to gain a measure of control and encourage the person to take on responsibility to aid the development of self-soothing. The second phase then works on the underlying emotional problems.

Examples of EUPD in fiction
The works that commonly look at EUPD are memoirs, like Girl, Interrupted (though the film is less accurate).

When researching this article, I found a theory that Anakin Skywalker could have EUPD, which is a very interesting take on that character. He has the early childhood trauma and absence of appropriate role modelling to precipitate a problem, with a very intense relationship with Padme and a definite lack of emotional control. However, he reinforces the stigmatising stereotype that people with EUPD are harmful to others where this is vanishingly rare in reality.

The most compelling example I’ve found is that of Elsa from Frozen. She has the early childhood trauma of hurting her sister Ana, coupled with an emotional and physical distance from her family due to her powers. The lack of control of her magic provides a parallel to poor emotional control – with the “conceal, don’t feel” attitude one which some children and teens grow up with from parental example, with the result that strong emotions come out sideways – in anger or explosions of ice. She has great difficulty with self-soothing, imposes isolation to prevent developing a potentially painful relationship and exposing her emotions, and reacts chaotically to any change in circumstances. For Elsa, her relationship with Ana can be seen as a positive force for change, to prove her self-worth and ability to form meaningful connections.

Writing EUPD
I think this is a very difficult topic to address as a writer. The risk of straying into bipolar affective disorder is quite high, and a word of caution in YA – some aspects of this presentation are normal teenage expression, part of personality development. It’s a failure to move beyond that phase that can lead to a personality problem.

If you do want to venture down this path, I recommend reaching out to someone with EUPD who can guide you through, or reading memoirs and personal accounts to get a good sense of what it is and what it isn’t. Good luck!

NaNoWriMo: A Survival Guide

The clocks have gone back, the nights are drawing in and the supermarkets are full of pumpkins. It is almost that time of year again…


For those not in the know, NaNoWriMo is short for National Novel Writing Month. The goal is simple: write a 50,000-word novella in the 30 days of November.

This year will be my fifth NaNoWriMo. I’ve participated in 2006, 2007, 2011 and 2013. 2011 and 2013 birthed my two published novels, Binary Witness and Code Runner.

If you are thinking of taking the plunge and participating in your first NaNoWriMo, I have a few words of advice to help get you through…

Plot as much or as little as you need
You may heard the question “plotter or pantser?” addressed to authors. Basically, do you plot our everything that happens in your novel or do you just write whatever you feel like at the time? I’m somewhere in the middle. I need to know how the novel begins and ends but the middle is a little more free-flowing. If I over-plot, I get bored because if I already know what happens, why would I bother writing it? I have to write for me as well as my imagined audience.

If this is your first piece of creative writing, you may not know what suits you best. However, don’t take the advice of anyone who says “you must plot” or “you must go with it” – everyone is different. I recommend starting with a basic beginning, middle and end, but you can fill in the gaps with reams of notes or nothing but air. Go with your gut!

Aim above your word target
If you’re aiming for 50k overall, you need to write 1,667 words per day to meet your target. I recommend setting up a simple spreadsheet to monitor your progress.

However, there will inevitably be days when Real Life gets in the way and you cannot write. The time to prepare for those days is at the beginning. This year, we are fortunate that NaNoWriMo starts on a weekend. For folks with full-time jobs, weekends are often the best time to build up words.

Some folks aim for 5k on the first weekend, to get a good head start. Do what feels right for you – don’t get burned out and disheartened by putting too much pressure on yourself right out of the gate.

Apologise to your friends and family in advance
Unless you are a demon-fast writer, you are going to be a recluse for the next month. You are going to be spending time every day writing, time that you would usually spend elsewhere.

The most probable area to take the hit will be socialising. You might have to decline a few parties or set your box to record all your favourite TV. Your spouse may have to cook a few more dinners.

If you want to compromise your people time as little as possible, look for areas where you can squeeze in some writing time. And remember to recharge – you can’t write all the time. Spending time living is where the creativity springs from.

Hang out on the forums
Between frenetically typing your magnum opus, you should spare a little time to check out the NaNoWriMo forums. For me, this is one of the best parts of the experience.

From bizarre fact-checking requests (“how can I poison someone underwater?”) to fun writing games (“write the demise of the last commenter”), this is where the spirit of NaNoWriMo really lives. Take encouragement from the thousands of people sharing the journey with you.

Finish – and then WAIT
When you’ve won NaNoWriMo, you feel on top of the world. You have done it – you are a novelist.

You are, of course, eager to show your masterpiece to the world. DO NOT DO THIS. You may have written a novel, but it is a raw, baby proto-novel. To send your novel out into the world now would be like enrolling your toddler in university. You are not yet done!

Put your novel in a drawer and wait. Wait at least a month and do not look at it. Do not even think about it. Catch up with all the people and hobbies you’ve been neglecting over November. Binge on Gotham and do your Christmas shopping.

In January, after you’ve recovered from New Year, you can look at your novel again. And then the real work begins.

Doing NaNoWriMo this year? Add me as a writing buddy! Writing a novel that involves psychiatry or psychology? Check out the #psywrite Twitter chat on November 18th at 8pm GMT – and, if you can’t wait, ask me on Twitter or Goodreads.

5 Biggest Mistakes When Writing Mental Illness

Madness in fiction, like most things in fiction, reflects and informs the popular view. If we write about terrifying, violent mad folk running about with machetes in our films, books and TV shows, the general public nod at how much that confirms their view of madness and cross the street when they see someone out of the ordinary. Or worse. Much worse.

At the bare minimum, we should get the facts right. Here are my Top 5 mental health myths in fiction that need to be kicked to the kerb.

1) Straitjackets and padded cells are not standard issue

Daniel Jackson in a padded cell (Stargate SG-1)

Let’s start with straitjackets. We do not use straitjackets in mental health in the UK. They are cruel and dangerous. Short-term physical restraint is used during a psychiatric emergency and it is tightly-regulated, with training and a mountain of paperwork. If your character is spending time in a mental health unit, they will not see a straitjacket.

A bedroom in a modern mental health unit has more in common with a room in university halls than it does a padded cell. There are certain things which distinguish them – the furniture is usually heavy and secured to the walls or floor, and you won’t find hooks, nails, curtain rails or door handles, because we are safety conscious.

The Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), where the most unwell people stay, has a step up in safety features – most notably, a seclusion or low stimulation room. This small room has furniture made of the soft squishy blocks you might see in a children’s play area. The walls, however, are just walls.

Padded rooms do still exist in some facilities. They are for short durations where a person is unwell and very rarely a permanent residence. If your character is spending a week in a mental health unit for depression, they are really unlikely to see one.

2) Schizophrenia is not split personality (which does not really exist)

I thought this myth was busted a long time ago, but a recent survey by the Time to Change mental health campaign found that 68% of the British public think schizophrenia is split personality.

Okay, let’s start at the beginning. The word schizophrenia does literally mean “split mind”. But it was the 19th century and they went through a lot of words back then, including dementia praecox – which is a very strange term that applied to everything and nothing in psychiatry over about fifty years.

Schizophrenia, as we now know it, is a disorder of psychosis – a breakdown of the ability to differentiate reality from fiction. When people talk about split personality, they are thinking of the rare, questionable multiple personality disorder.

In fiction, multiple personality disorder usually involves several distinct personalities operating out of one body and with differing levels of conscious awareness of each other. In modern psychiatry, this could be a very severe form of dissociative state – where people unconsciously break off from reality pieces of themselves and hide them away, or undertake journeys without any memory of them.

However, this is rare and the split between the personalities is usually less well divided. A person may retreat to a child-like presentation during a therapy session, but that personality does not take over the body and commit murders without the “innocent” dominant personality knowing. 

3) Psychiatrists and psychotherapists are not the same thing

Psychiatrist – expert in diagnosing mental health problems and prescribing medication, with some knowledge of giving talking therapies to patients (e.g. CBT, psychotherapy)

Psychotherapist – expert in deliverying a specific type of talking therapy – usually psychoanalysis, psychoanalytic psychotherapy or psychodynamic psychotherapy.

Clinical psychologist – expert in one or many talking therapies, but usually not psychotherapy (because we have a different word for that!).

This point comes with a health warning – because the state of play is different in the USA than it is in the UK. US-trained psychiatrists are predominately medics first BUT are also all trained in psychotherapy. UK “medical psychotherapists” are psychiatrists who are specially trained in psychotherapy. You can read more here

4) OCD is not about being a neat freak

My husband has OCD. When I mention this to people, I sometimes get the response “your house must be so clean!” Wrong, on so many levels.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder involves intrusive, unpleasant, horrific thoughts (obsessions) and the felt-necessary rituals to attempt to undo, remove or counteract the thoughts (compulsions). Cleaning, ordering and symmetry can all be compulsions, but they are almost always related to an intrusive thought – for example, “if I don’t wipe the table seven times, my children will die from ebola”.

Not “I like a clean house because I hate clutter”. Or the recent nonsensical trend in dousing children in alcohol gel (hint: it does fuck-all – let them develop an immune system).

And sometimes OCD has absolutely nothing to do with cleaning. Sometimes it’s about checking the door is locked 99 times. Or repeatedly driving the same piece of road to make sure you didn’t hit anyone. Or repeating The Lord’s Prayer over and over again to protect your wife from being raped by a stranger.

It’s not about a bit of spit and polish. 

5) Addiction is not cured by a rousing speech

Like the rallying cry that ends Hollywood depression (i.e. misery), you can rely on a motivating thirty-second speech to suddenly snap a person out of their crippling addiction, whether it be to alcohol, prescription medication or gambling.

Because it’s just that simple. He just needed to believe in himself! She just needed that special man to come into her life! Bullshit.

Charles Xavier in X-Men: Days of Future Past

Let’s take Charles Xavier in X-Men: Days of Future Past. One minute, he’s mired in an alcohol, drug-fuelled stupor. The next, after one big event, he’s suddenly back to his First Class self. With no explanation of how he shook off this supposedly highly-addictive substance. 

These miraculous transformations reinforces the rhetoric that people with addictions are merely not trying hard enough or have flaws in their characters, rather than acknowledging that this is severe brain disease with potentially fatal consequences.

Do you have questions about mental health for your plot or characters? Join Vicky Newham and me for #psywrite, a monthly Twitter chat helping writers enhance the accuracy and sensitivity of their mental health portrayals and improve their psychological understanding of interactions between characters, situations and arcs.

Our first chat is Tuesday 21st October at 8pm BST on the Twitter hashtag #psywrite.

Code Runner launch

Code Runner, Book 2 of The Amy Lane Mysteries, launches today!

You can purchase a copy of your very own by visiting any reputable ebook retailer, like the following:

Carina Press | Amazon | Barnes & Noble | Google Play | iBooks | Kobo

Not heard of Code Runner? Let me fill you in:

Book two of The Amy Lane Mysteries

Ex-con Jason Carr has faced down the toughest thugs in Cardiff, but being assistant to a brilliant, eccentric hacker who hasn’t been outdoors in ten years has its own challenges. Still, he and Amy Lane can solve cases even the cops can’t crack. And when a corpse washes up on a beach, Jason can’t resist chasing the clues—or defying Amy by infiltrating the very gangs he once escaped.

Amy is distraught when Jason’s pursuit gets him framed for murder. He’s thrown back in prison where he’s vulnerable to people who want him dead. He needs Amy to prove his innocence. Fast.

But Amy hasn’t been honest with him—her panic attacks aren’t getting better. And now, with everything that makes her feel safe ripped away, she must stand alone, using her technological skills to expose a baffling conspiracy and a new kind of online crime. Can she clear Jason’s name before danger closes in?

Praise for Code Runner

“Be prepared for a thrilling ride through the countryside of Cardiff, South Wales, and its environs as Amy Lane embarks on another wild adventure.” – RT Magazine, 4* review

“I recommend this series to anyone who likes a fast paced thriller but one that also makes you think.” – Tracey Walsh @ Crime Reader Blog


To celebrate the Code Runner launch, there are several awesome online happenings for you to participate in, like the #FindJason book selfies, #Carina Mystery blog blitz and Twitter chat, and the Code Runner blog tour. You can find out more about all those things here.

You can follow all the news and updates about The Amy Lane Mysteries by following the blog, liking the Facebook Page and signing up for The Amy Lane Mysteries newsletter.

Amy Lane’s Guide to Password Security

With ONE WEEK to go until the Code Runner launch, my agoraphobic hacker Amy Lane lays down the law on password security. Ignore her at your peril!


If you’re looking for my advice, I’m assuming we’ve filtered out the first layer of morons. I’m talking about the kind of people who think “password” is a great password or use one of the most common and worst passwords of the year. Or that swapping out letters for numbers in the name of their favourite band is the height of security. (Yes, Jason, I’m looking at you.)

I also assume you have something worth guarding. Facebook is a leaking sieve for privacy – your best password is wasted on it. Of course, the best hackers will always bypass your defences, but you don’t have to make it easy for them.

Memorable data
Unless you have a good head for random letter-number strings, you will likely base your password on words in common usage. This improves the chances of your password being guessed by a hacker. If that word is publicly associated with you, those chances increase at a steep incline. Therefore, if you use something as moronic as your child or dog’s name as your password, the probability of a first-time guess approaches 1.

However, our memory functions better when we have something to hang it on. We are increasingly asked to answer information about our school teachers and first cars because it is assumed that this information is only available to us and our closest friends and friendly, who we presumably trust. This, in my view, is a dangerous assumption. However, it is better than writing it down, which is a capital crime and should be punishable by firing squad. Do not do this.

Letters, numbers, symbols
Services are demanding more and more conditions for your passwords. Uppercase letters, special characters, 8-16 characters – by imposing these rules, they hope to make your password more secure. In fact, they are driving more people to write down their passwords in an effort to remember. This is, of course, very stupid (See above: firing squad).

Numbers prove difficult to remember for most people. However, under specific circumstances, they prove easier to remember. Pairing numbers or grouping them into familiar patterns can help. For this reason, dates can be useful – though not your wedding anniversary, please (See above: moronic). You can also recycle numbers you learned in the past, like your best friend’s phone number or the postcode of your first house.

Group your passwords
As we have already established, most people cannot remember random data. Ideally, we would have different passwords for every single one of our access points. I live in the real world, however, and I know that this is not the case.


A way to get around this problem is to group passwords – perhaps based on function or subject matter, and sometimes based on level of security. Your bank security should be higher than your phone passcode, though both should be as secure as possible. Perhaps you use the same password for every account your setup in 2014, or perhaps you have a set of passwords for work and a set for home. Maybe all your social media accounts share variations of one password – and variations are very important. We do not want one guessed password to fell an empire.

Use it or lose it
Password-saving browsers and applications are a blessing and curse. On the one hand, they prevent the sin of writing down a password. On the other, they mean that all someone needs to do is open your browser and they can access every account you own. At minimum, your browser passwords should have an access lock – a master password.

However, the best way to remember a piece of data is to use it continuously. This will maintain it in short, medium and long-term memory. Therefore, resist the urge to tick “remember me” after setting a new password. Constantly typing the password will help you to remember it.

The best passwords are personal
Your password should be memorable to you and only you. The crush in primary school that you did not tell a single soul about. Your favourite character on the TV show you watched after your parents were in bed. The book you read that changed your life but everyone else dismissed as trash. These are memory gold, the data mine from which all your passwords should be gathered.

If you speak a non-English language, use it in your password. If you have a favourite phrase or saying, consider using the initials. Surnames and exotic place names that have no connection to you except that you once read about them on Twitter but did not press “favourite”.

Pair two completely separate parts of your life in one password. The name of your school house and your favourite blend of coffee. The day you passed your driving test and the first single you every owned on CD (or mp3 or tape or record). The details of your first kiss, even if it’s still in your future.

These are the dreams passwords are made of. Go forth and make better passwords.

When streetwise ex-con Jason Carr is framed for murder, agoraphobic hacker Amy Lane must prove his innocence before he is hunted down by vengeful gangs, the police and the mastermind behind it all. Code Runner, Book 2 in The Amy Lane Mysteries, is released on 29th September 2014 and you can order it here.

If you haven’t met Amy and Jason yet, Binary Witness is currently on sale for 61¢/37p on Amazon and 99¢/60p everywhere else.

Freudian Script: Gangs and Drugs


Gangs and drugs – in the eyes of the public, inextricably intertwined. But what is the impact of gang lifestyle on mental health? And how do alcohol and drugs fit the picture?

What is a gang?
My protagonist Jason often protests that he wasn’t in a gang. He ran with a group of lads who liked petty theft and doing drugs on the weekend. So, what exactly is a gang?

In its 2009 report “Dying to Belong”, The Centre for Social Justice identified that part of the problem of researching and tackling the negative effects of gang culture is the lack of universal definition. Therefore, they proposed a definition, which we will use for the purpose of this post:

“A relatively durable, predominantly street-based group of young people who
(1) see themselves (and are seen by others) as a discernible group
(2) engage in a range of criminal activity and violence
(3) identify with or lay claim over territory
(4) have some form of identifying structural feature
(5) are in conflict with other, similar, gangs.”

So, do all gangs do drugs?
As you can see, gangs and drugs don’t always go hand in hand by definition – though drug use could fit into the “criminal activity” catch-all of lawbreaking. However, some researchers in the field consider substance misuse as a “defining characteristic” of gang membership.

One such research group is headed by Professor Jeremy Coid, whose research into mental health and gangs is very accessible and well worth a read. In a UK research survey of gang members, 67% were alcohol dependent and 57% were drug dependent (you can read the full article here).

This research groups describes a “syndemic” in UK gang culture – two or more diseases that co-exist in a given group and make each other worse. For gangs, that’s substance misuse, violence and AIDS (SAVA). In short, drugs are a big problem for gang members but they aren’t the whole story.

Gangs and Mental Health
What about other mental health problems associated with gang membership? Gang members have much higher rates of mental illness than both violent and non-violent men. High rates of psychosis and anxiety are reported in gang populations. However, there are some problems in working out exactly how much more they are affected.

For example, paranoia is often a feature of psychosis. But is it paranoia if they’re really out to get you? Hypervigilance can be part of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder – but is that a normal response to an environment where anyone might attack you at any time?

Different rates of mental health problems will also occur at different levels of a gang. Higher level gang members are no longer involved in violence – they are now businessmen and power brokers. However, they may carry the historical risk of previous violence. Think: The Wire.

Mental Health and Drugs
I am not talking about addiction and dependence today, except to say these are diseases not character flaws or lifestyle choices. Instead, let’s talk about the mental health problems that co-exist with alcohol and drug use. I could go on and on about the specifics of individual drugs and their link to mental health problems, but let’s just touch on common problems and their common causes.

Hallucinations are a recognised part of drug trips, such as with LSD. They can also be part of acute alcohol intoxication and withdrawal (delirium tremens or DTs). These tend to be visual hallucinations, which is mainly what differentiates them from schizophrenia, et al. (contrary to what Hollywood would have you believe). However, certain drugs can tend towards other types of hallucinations – cocaine is specifically associated with formication, the feeling that insects are crawling under your skin. Cannabis use is commonly associated with paranoia.

Drug-induced psychosis is when a psychotic episode is triggered by using drugs. The most common drugs for causing this are cannabis and cocaine, though I’ve seen it with other stimulants.

Why do some people who smoke tonnes of weed never experience psychosis and some smoke one joint and land in full-blown nightmareland? Well, why does anyone get any disease? It’s likely that those people are particularly vulnerable to drugs and that this is a warning to take better care of their brains. However, there is a dose-related link between cannabis and psychosis – heavy smoking (meaning >50 joints in your lifetime!) double psychosis risk.

We also have a bit of chicken and egg problem. Some people with psychosis turn to drugs and alcohol as a way to cope with their strange and terrifying experiences, often termed “self-medicating”. When a person presents with a psychotic illness and drug use, it can sometimes we difficult to tease out which came first.

Depression and anxiety
The relationship between alcohol and depression is complex one. Alcohol is a depressant, and heavy alcohol use is linked to depression. But folks also use alcohol to cope with depression. Unfortunately, the effects are short-lived and alcohol maintains the depression. Anxiety has a similar picture – drinking calms the nerves, but only temporarily. The rebound makes the anxiety worse, which fuels the need for more alcohol. Cannabis and benzodiazepines share a similar picture.

Cocaine is slightly different. After the initial high, the crash of cocaine can be devastating and is associated with higher suicide risk. Its usage also fuels anxiety.

Linking gangs and drugs to mental health problems
So, having looked at the mental health risks of merely being in a gang and then the effects of drugs on mental health, you can see how we’d get an additive effect. That’s why gang members use mental health services much more than the general population.

There are also people who are both attracted to gang lifestyle and to drug use. I am thinking specifically of those with dissocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

Writing gangs, drugs and mental health
We’ve seen casual drug use, violence and psychopaths in a gang context. We’ve also see addiction, dependence and withdrawal told vividly on screen (Trainspotting, anyone?). The untold stories are the ones about vulnerabilities – psychosis, anxiety, PTSD – and the difficulties in accessing help, in admitting anything which may be seen as a weakness when strength is survival.

In Code Runner, I play with the idea of mental illness as a weakness. One gang leader has the moniker “Madhouse Mickey”, creating a persona which feeds off others’ perceptions that he is unpredictable, a ticking time bomb. But that ruse only works if he is 100% in control of the situation. Mickey actually uses mental health stigma to his advantage to maintain a position of authority.

I also mess with Jason’s head (because I really love to do that). His experience with drugs in Code Runner leads him to doubt the one thing he thought he knew about himself – whether he is capable of murder. As laid out in the Code Runner book trailer, the aftermath of his very bad trip forces him to confront the possibility.

If you have a question about mental health and writing, leave a comment here, find me on Twitter or ask me a question on Goodreads.

Code Runner is available to order for delivery to your e-reader on 29th September 2014. Share the trailer on social media to enter the giveaway.

Jason Carr’s Guide to Surviving On The Run

Bad day at work? Rent due and short of cash? Framed for murder? My streetwise ex-con Jason Carr, half of the crime-solving team in The Amy Lane Mysteries, shares his practical tips for successfully surviving on the run…

I’ve known my fair share of trouble. More than my share, being honest, but that’s my own fault. I mucked about in the past, got nicked by the cops – and rightly so, let’s admit it – before being sent down. But this time, it weren’t my fault. I got framed for a crime I didn’t commit and, despite my boss’ best efforts and with some bad guys trying to finish me off, I ended up running from my problems.

I don’t really recommend it, but if you find yourself in this kind of jam, here are my tips for staying alive and keeping a low profile.

Mobile phones are not your friend
You know those smartphones we carry about everywhere? My boss is a tech whizz and she tells me that anybody can track you down if it’s in your pocket. And I’ve seen her in action, tracking suspects all over Cardiff just using their phones. If you’re serious about going on the run, ditch your phone asap. That goes for your fancy iPads and laptops and anything else that half-thinks for itself.

Stay off the beaten track
Given the choice of towns, cities and main roads or open fields and dirt tracks, you gotta go country every time. I’m a city boy, born and bred in Cardiff, so I haven’t the first clue what to do in a field full of sheep. But there aren’t many cameras out in the Welsh valleys and not many folks to spot you. That said, there are fewer strangers about too, so don’t just march into the local and order a pint. They’ll know you don’t fit in, especially if you’re wearing a monkey suit for your court date.

Hello darkness, my old friend

While we’re being careful of those stranger-danger, Neighbourhood Watch types, it’s always better to move after dark. Find somewhere to hole up during the daytime, preferably warm and dry but at least out of the way, and then get going again under the stars. Not that we get many stars out in Wales – too many clouds, dishing out that rain we’re famous for. Also, barns might not be your best idea. Not many people are packing in Wales, but farmers and their mums probably are and you don’t want them to get twitchy with a shotgun in hand.

Safe for you and safe for your mates
If you’re a selfish git, you might just be thinking of your own skin. But if you’ve got family you love and mates you respect, you’re gonna want to keep them out of harm’s way as well as you. So making straight for your mam’s front door isn’t smart – it might draw down all kinds of hell on her, from the law to the lawless. But if you’ve got a techy friend who stays off the radar and has a few nooks and crannies to hide you away, it might be worth paying her a visit.

Someone to watch over you
Last and no way least, you need someone to look out for you. Someone on your side, who really believes you aren’t a complete waste of space who probably did what everyone’s saying he did. It helps if that person also knows how to go about proving you’re innocent, has friends who are honest cops, and maybe planted a tracking device on you to make sure she knows where you are 24/7. It’s creepy at first, but it’s good to know that someone’s genuinely got your back. And wants you to come home.

When streetwise ex-con Jason Carr is framed for murder, agoraphobic hacker Amy Lane must prove his innocence before he is hunted down by vengeful gangs, the police and the mastermind behind it all. Code Runner, Book 2 in The Amy Lane Mysteries, is released on 29th September 2014 and you can order it here.

If you haven’t met Amy and Jason yet, Binary Witness is currently on sale for 61¢/37p on Amazon and 99¢/60p everywhere else. Buy it now!

Code Runner Book Trailer: The Making-Of

With four weeks until CODE RUNNER hits virtual bookshelves, it’s time to share the book trailer!

(You can find out more about Code Runner and the associated giveaway here)

But over here at Swords and Lattes, I know y’all expect a little more. So let me talk you through how this trailer came into being – consider this the DVD commentary of the Code Runner book trailer.

What is a book trailer?
It is a trailer for a book.

I admit, I was a little sceptical. Because my previous experience with book trailers was James Patterson’s latest novel turning up on my TV and me thinking “WTF this is the worst telemovie ever – oh no, wait, it’s a book”.

But I know from my short film efforts that folks love a good YouTube video. Short, sharp, to the point. Folks love visuals, and a shortcut to the main event. While I am not a natural viewer of video articles, I do now click Twitter pictures over reading articles to see if it’s worth my time.

With a novel, a good synopsis and an excerpt can work well. But a great cover can seal the deal and, if a video extra can entice an audience, I’m game. For Binary Witness, the lovely folks at Realm Pictures filmed me reading Chapter One. (You can see it here.) For Code Runner, I wanted to try something a little different.

So, I started watching book trailers.

Some were great. Some were awful. So it is with all content everywhere.

Three trailers particularly struck me. The first was for Lauren Beukes’ The Shining Girls. It is very like a film trailer and fits the book’s plot and atmosphere very well. However, I don’t have the resources to film a one-minute short film for my book. I’m also not keen on giving my characters definite faces – characters are open to the readers’ imaginations and I don’t want to limit that.

The second was for JF Penn’s Pentecost. Advice from The Creative Penn is invaluable for any author interested in marketing, so I was obviously keen to take in her trailer wisdom. I tried to use some footage collected in the woods for the Code Runner teaser trailer but I wasn’t particularly happy with how it turned out.

The third trailer I loved was for Chuck Wendig’s Blackbirds and Mockingbird. I love this trailer. It’s a great introduction to the character and premise of the series, and Wendig’s writing style. However, I took note of his comments in that post and the feedback – it runs a little long and, again, it was professional produced with $$$. But I loved the simple combination of words and voiceover, and I thought it could form a good basis for a Code Runner book trailer.

Test – one, two, three: the voiceover
Those who have met me IRL may notice its my voice on the trailer. However, it took my own husband thirty seconds to recognise me!

Honestly, I don’t know what happened. I sat down, pressed record on my iPhone and read the excerpt from Chapter 9: Lost Boy. My breathing was a little obvious in places and I tried to re-record the worst bits, but I’m afraid I couldn’t find that tone again – the creepy voice had departed forever. Instead, I cleaned it up in Audacity and imported it into good, old Windows Movie Maker.

A picture’s worth a thousand words: the images
I wanted the words to convey the atmosphere of the novel, not just “say what you see”, Catchphrase-style. But I also didn’t want each image to be too “busy” – I figured we were working with old Powerpoint wisdom here, so I limited my fonts.

I chose a typewriter-style for the main text, with other simple images and font changes for emphasis. For the change in the middle of the text, I used a more handwriting-based font to encourage the flow of reading – again, an atmosphere choice.


I planned each “full image” with multiple layers using Paint.net and then saved out each individual image. I then adjusted the timing to follow the narration. The whole thing probably took me a whole day of work, over three sessions or so. And I’ll admit that I’m pretty pleased with how it turned out.

So, what do you think? Let me know your thoughts on my trailer and books trailers in general in the comments!

Freudian Script: Bipolar Affective Disorder

Bipolar Affective Disorder: The Fight For The Middle Ground


After the revelation that Robin Williams suffered with bipolar affective disorder, a rush of articles about creatives and mental health problems sprung up all over the shop. Last week – not for the first time – a young man sat in an assessment with me and said he didn’t want medication to take away his “creativity”.

So, now seemed like a good time to talk about what bipolar affective disorder is and what it isn’t, and how Hollywood and the media often get it wrong.

What is bipolar affective disorder?
Also know as manic depression, bipolar affective disorder is a mental health problem consisting of cycles of two opposite moods: manic/high phases and depressive/low phases. In between episodes, people sit somewhere in a mood state that is “normal” for them – which may run slightly high or low, depending on the person. A person with “rapid cycling” disease has four or more episodes per year.

Bipolar depressive episodes look a lot like depression – aka unipolar depression. The main difference is that bipolar depression does not respond as well to antidepressants, and people more frequently experience psychosis.

Manic episodes are what set bipolar affective disorder apart from other mental health problems. Mania is a state of “high” mood, associated with disinhibition and living really, really fast. This is often portrayed as living in one very exciting party 24/7. Some people do experience their manic episodes in this way – which is one reason why some people really hate taking medication for them. Highs can be a lot of fun.

But they can also be really ugly. Some people don’t experience manic episodes as happy highs but irritable, restless periods, which is increasingly likely as folks get older with the disease. People also make huge errors of judgement – sleeping with many different partners when they’re usually monogamous, spending money they don’t have, and crashing their cars. Mania can also come with psychosis – believing they have special powers, hearing the voice of God, thinking they can fly.

Suicide risk is high in people with bipolar affective disorder, but actually moreso in a high phase. The combination of inescapable agitation and lowered barriers leads to more likely suicide attempts.

The Stephen Fry Effect
First off, before I go further, I will saw this: I greatly admire Stephen Fry as an artist, as a man and as a person struggling with a mental health problem. This is in no way an attack on the man or how he chooses to lead his life. But it is important to recognise the impact of celebrity on mental health stigma.

Bipolar affective disorder, of all mental health problems, carries a certain level of desirability. In private healthcare, it is often given to patients who would be better served with a different diagnosis or no diagnosis at all. There is something attractive about this disease.

This may be down to the “party time” reputation of high episodes. However, I feel it’s also due to the creativity myth – i.e. bipolar affective disorder is the disease of creatives, funny men and artists. With your brain running faster than the rest, you’ll be faster with a witty retort. On a deadline? You can pull several all-nighters in a row to finish that novel and then go out for drinks.

Stephen Fry is the poster child for this attitude. Even though he now takes medication, he is renowned for not taking medication since 1995 until this recent change. This is the most-frequently cited argument I have heard against medication for mental health problems – “it will ruin my life/personality/creativity. Look at Stephen Fry.”

This is, of course, bollocks. No medication changes your personality. Medication of various kinds can be sedating and can affect concentration. If your brain runs at a slightly-high normal, medication can bring it down to a lower baseline, which some people experience as slowing. However, all the evidence suggests that people with stable bipolar affective disorder are more productive than those off treatment. This is because they are more consistent, and not constantly disrupted with too-high or too-low swings in their mood.

Writing Bipolar Affective Disorder
Bipolar is not sexy. It is not fun. It is not a party. And it’s not Jekyll and Hyde, or Two-Face, or any other “split personality”.

I’d like to see more realistic depictions of bipolar affective disorder. I’d like to see mania not portrayed as a party, but as a brutal experience with real-life consequences beyond a hangover. I’d like to see characters with bipolar who predominately experience depression. And I would like to see more smart, well-adjusted characters who are like “yeah, I have bipolar, and?”. Because a person with stable bipolar affective disorder can be a high-functioning professional with no external signs of illness, like a person with well-controlled asthma need only carry an inhaler.

Stigma is fought be showing good mental health as well as mental illness. Bipolar affective disorder is no different.